名字 wiki。 命名牌

人名

名字 wiki

詳細は「」を参照 (明治8年)2月13日太政官布告で「氏」の使用が義務化され、(明治9年)3月17日に太政官指令で「制」が出される。 その後(明治31年)旧民法で「」が制定された。 以来、現代まで日本の制度ではすべてのが姓を有する、から受け継がれてきた家庭の名称やを中心にした家族の名称を指す。 家庭内や同姓がいるときは、のみがを表す名称だが、家庭以外では、姓と名を合わせたフルネームで表記することで個人を特定する名称となる。 の姓は、基本的にである。 ただし「一ノ瀬」などのように一部にが含まれているもの、「反り目」のようにが含まれているもの、「佐々木」のようにが含まれているものもある。 以外から日本に移り住み国籍を取得した者の中には、元の姓の読みを当て字にする(等)、片仮名で表記する(等)など本人の意向に沿った姓を選択できるため、新しい苗字が出来ることもあるが、使える文字はに限定されている。 日本の主な名字 [ ] 以下は、現在日本国内に多い(上位30)である。 日本国内に多い名字(上位30位、2010年現在) 順位 名字(読み) 備考 1 ( サトウ、サドウ) ・をはじめとする(特に)やに多い名字で、では・を除きそれほど多くはない。 ではむしろ珍しい名字。 2 ( スズキ、ススキ、ススギ) (特に)・及び・に多い。 のランキングでは1位。 発祥地はだが、西日本(特に)にはさほど多くはない。 3 ( タカハシ、タカバシ) この名字もをはじめ東日本(とくにの周辺)やに多い傾向がある。 4 ( ワタナベ、ワタベ) 発祥地はで、を除く全国に満遍なく分布するが、密度はやなど東日本南部または・(特に)に多い。 5 ( タナカ、ダナカ、デンチュウ) 全国満遍なく分布し、大半の都道府県で上位にランクされるが、密度では(を除く)の方が多い。 ・・のランキングでは1位であり、西日本全体でも1位である。 でも(特に・地域)・(特に)・では密度が高い。 6 ( イトウ) 及び・・・に多い。 件数はが最も多いが、密度ではの方が多い。 では市町村としては最も件数が多い。 7 ( ヤマモト) どちらかといえばに多いが、は多くない。 ・では1位、・では2位。 でもやでは上位にランクされる。 8 ( ナカムラ) 全国に分布する。 どちらかといえばに多い。 特に・に多い。 9 ( コバヤシ、オバヤシ) ・・・に多い。 10 ( サイトウ) 11 ( カトウ) 発祥地は()だが、ではそれほど多くない。 には多く分布する。 12 ( ヨシダ、キチダ、ヨシタ) 発祥は。 を除く全国に分布するが、・・地方で密度が高い。 13 ( ヤマダ) 特定の地方に多いというわけではなく、日本のどの地方においても平均的に件数が存在する。 左記理由により、各種書類等の記入見本に山田姓が用いられる例は多い。 14 ( ササキ) 発祥地はだが、・・・に多い。 15 ( ヤマグチ) 全国万遍なく分布するが、(特に)で割合が高い。 日本の都道府県名のうち、日本人の姓としては最も多い。 16 ( マツモト) やに多く分布する。 17 ( イノウエ、イカミ) に多く分布する。 18 ( キムラ) を除く全国に分布する。 19 ( ハヤシ) ・やに多くに分布する。 20 ( シミズ、キヨミズ、ショウズ) 21 ( ヤマザキ、ヤマサキ) では「ヤマサキ」が多い。 22 ( イケダ、イケタ) 23 ( アベ) に多く分布する。 24 ( モリ) に多く分布する。 25 ( ハシモト) 26 ( ヤマシタ、ヤマモト) に多く分布する。 27 ( イシカワ、イシガワ) 28 ( ナカジマ、ナカシマ) やなどでは「ナカシマ」が多い。 29 ( マエダ、マエタ) に多く分布する。 30 ( フジタ) 姓と名の順序 [ ] 姓と名の表記の順は、表記対象の人がどの国の人か、どの言語圏に属しているか、ということや、それを実際に表記する言語、また書籍の種類(一般の書籍なのか、学術本なのか等)や雑誌の種類(一般人向けの雑誌なのか、科学誌なのか、その中でも具体的にどの科学誌なのか)等々の種類の影響も受ける。 が、日本人の姓名をやを用いて表記する時は、姓-名の順で表記する。 参照文献についてのISO規格(SIST 02作成時はISO 690:1987)は,姓を先に書くことを規定しています。 改正版(ISO 690:2010)でも同様です。 原論文での欧文著者名の表記が「名・姓」順であっても,参照文献欄の表記では図書目録と同様に「姓・名」の順にします。 なお,参照文献欄が「名・姓」順のままの雑誌もあります。 2011年の誌の参照文献欄は「名のイニシャル・姓」の順,誌は「姓・名のイニシャル」の順でした。 科学技術情報流通技術基準(SIST)はまた、「 日本語論文の参照文献欄で 外国人名を表記する場合,「姓・名」順ですか。 複数著者名の場合の区切り記号は何ですか。 」との問いに対し、次のように回答した。 これを受けて NHK も、から、放送やWEBサイトでの表記を「姓・名」の順に統一することとしている。 英語や西洋言語における日本人姓名の順序 [ ] 英語では、存命中または最近死去した日本人の姓名に関して、一般的には姓が最後(名-姓の順序)でを付さずに与えられる。 歴史上の人物では名字が最初に(可能ならマクロンありで)付けられる。 日本人は通常、英語や西洋言語を使う際に、伝統的な日本の姓名順序とは逆の「名-姓」という順序で姓名を紹介する。 明治時代の日本で始まったもので、多くの英語出版物では現代日本人の姓名順序は姓が後ろになっている。 文部科学省の国語審議会は、この慣習が明治時代に定着したと次のように書いている。 日本人の姓名をローマ字で表記するときに、本来の形式を逆転して「名-姓」の順とする慣習は、明治の欧化主義の時代に定着したものであり、欧米の人名の形式に合わせたものである。 現在でもこの慣習は広く行われており、国内の英字新聞や英語の教科書も、日本人名を「名-姓」順に表記しているものが多い。 (中略)一般的には「名-姓」順とし、歴史上の人物や文学者などに限って「姓-名」順で表記している場合もある。 明治時代に起こったの側面として、日本人は欧米言語において西洋の「名-姓」という順序を採用し、当時の日本が後進国ではなく先進国であることを世界により広く知らしめることになった。 球技などの国際的イベントに参加する際も、日本人は西洋の「名-姓」順序を使用していた。 日本人には実際の名の短縮形となるニックネームがしばしばあり、彼らは外国人と一緒の時にこれらの名前を使うことも多い。 例えば、「カズユキ」は自分自身を「カズ」と呼んだりもする。 これらの名前はとは見なされない。 日本語表記では姓が先で、英語表記では名前が先という例。 声優の Fumiko Orikasa。 大半の海外出版物では存命する日本人の姓名は逆さになっており、大半の日本人は海外販売するもの(書籍など)に書き込む自分の姓名を逆さにしている。 海外と取引を行う日本企業の幹部役員は通常2種類のを持っており、1つが国内で使う日本語だけのもので、もう1つが外国人向けで西洋式に「名-姓」となっているものである。 海外の著名な報道出版物では、西洋式順序が用いられている。 歴史上の人物は、英語でも名字が最初に呼ばれることが多い。 これは特に、日本に関する学術著作の中でそうなっている。 多くの学術著作は一般的に日本人の姓名について日本式の順序を使用しており、もしも著者が日本人学者ならば学術著作は日本式の順序を使用する可能性がより高い。 『ジャパニーズ・ネームズ』の著者ジョン・パワーは「日本語を話したり読んだりできる人は、日本人の姓名を西洋式の順序に変えることに強い抵抗がある」と記した。 これら作家によって書かれた書籍には、日本人の姓名がオリジナルの順序であるという注釈がしばしば入っている。 一部の海外書籍には、一貫した姓名順序の慣行がない。 『』の佐伯シズカは「これは作家や翻訳者にとって頭痛の種であるだけでなく、読者にとっても混乱の元となっている」と述べた。 東京に本部を置くプロの執筆者団体、Society of Writers, Editors and Translators SWET のリン・E・リッグスは「あなたが日本に関する本を出版する場合、あなたは日本について知りたいと思っている人々に向けてそれを出版しています。 それで彼らは、何か新しい事または新しいとされている何かを学ぶことに興味があるのです」と述べた。 佐伯は2001年に、大半の日本人が英語を書く際には西洋式順序を使っているとしつつも、20世紀に日本は経済大国になったことで、一部の人達が日本式順序の使用促進を始めたと述べている。 SWETによって書かれた日本に関する英語著作物を作るための1998年ガイド『ジャパン・スタイルシート』は、翻訳者が姓名順序の一貫性を促したいとして、できる限り普段から日本式の姓名順序を使うよう主張している。 1987年、日本の英語教科書出版社の1社が日本式順序を使用し、2001年では日本の英語教科書出版社の8社のうち6社が日本式順序を使用した。 2000年12月、文部科学省の国語評議会は「一定の書式に従って書かれる名簿や書類などは別として、一般的には各々の人名固有の形式が生きる形で紹介・記述されることが望ましい」 として、英語著作物で日本式の姓名順序を使用するよう推奨した。 同時に 、個人名のどの部分が名字でどの部分が名前であるかを明確にするために、名字をにする YAMADA Haruo ことやを使用する Yamada,Haruo との提言もなされた。 英語における日本の姓名の優先順位に関してが行った2000年1月の「国語に関する世論調査」 では、34. 9%が日本式の順序を優先し、30. 6%が西洋式の順序を優先し、29. 6%がどちらでもなかった。 1986年には、すべての刊行物に日本式の姓名順序を使用することを決定した。 国際交流基金の出版部広報は2001年頃に、よく読まれる英語話者の新聞を含む一部のSWET出版物は、西洋式順序を使用し続けると述べた。 2001年時点で同局のスタイルシートでは、状況に応じて異なる姓名順序を使用することを推奨している。 例えば、国際会議の文書など、日本に精通していない読者向けの出版物には西洋式の順序を使用するよう提唱している。 脚注 [ ] [] 注釈 [ ]• 朝日新聞 2016年11月6日• 静岡大学 人文学部 言語文化学科 比較言語文化コース 言語学分野 城岡研究室. 2008年9月3日閲覧。 2000年12月8日. 2013年1月18日閲覧。 (日本サッカー協会公式サイト 2012年4月1日)• 2019年10月5日)• 日本放送協会 2019年3月27日)• See International Who's Who, which is recommended for this purpose by the. 3 : "For names of well-known deceased persons, Chicago generally prefers the spellings in Merriam-Webster's Biographical Dictionary or the biographical section of Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary. 藤永丈司「」マイスキ英語、2018年7月11日更新。 2019年5月10日閲覧。 自己紹介における姓名は、I am+名前(+名字)あるいはMy name is+名前(+名字)とされる。 C4-2. 「日本人の姓名については、ローマ字表記においても「姓-名」の順(例えばYamada Haruo)とすることが望ましい」との提言がされている• June 2001. Volume 47, No. 543. Edith Terry,"How Asia Got Rich",M. Sharpe,2002,, 9780765603562,p.. 「」日本語公式ページにも同団体の訳語が存在せず、の「SWET」で統一されている。 直訳するなら「作家・編集者・翻訳者の協会」。 文化庁「」、ただしネット要約では姓名順序に関するデータ未掲載。 参考文献 [ ]• Power, John. June 2008. Volume 26, Issue 2, p. C4-2-C4-8 7 pages. Accession number 502948569. Available on. 関連項目 [ ].

次の

名字 wiki

edit• , standard in , variant in• : mingtzyh• : ming 4 zi 6• : ming 4 dzi 6• : ming 4 ji 6• Homophones: edit• : 'miang 4 ci 5• , incl. and• : miang 2 si 4• : , ,• : miali• : ,• : miaji• : min zr T3• , 名字。 [, ] , 名字。 [Pinyin] His last name is Chen, and his given name is Huaqing. [, ] 名字。 [Pinyin] I've forgotten how to spell your name. Synonyms [ ]• name :• , References [ ]• Korean [ ] in this term Noun [ ] 名字 myeongja hangeul• Okinawan [ ] Etymology [ ] in this term のー じ in this term みょー じ Alternative spelling Cognate to みょうじ. Pronunciation [ ]• , , References [ ]•

次の

聖經知識庫: 天使名字??

名字 wiki

Key:RWWYLEGWBNMMLJ-YSOARWBDSA-N Remdesivir, sold under the brand name Veklury, is a developed by the company. It is administered via. Remdesivir is being tested as a treatment for , and has been authorized for emergency use in the US, India, Singapore, and approved for use in Japan, the European Union, and Australia for people with severe symptoms. It also received approval in the UK in May 2020, however, it was going to be rationed due to limited supply. It may shorten the time it takes to recover from the infection. The most common side effect in healthy volunteers is raised blood levels of liver enzymes a sign of liver problems. The most common side effects in people with COVID-19 is nausea feeling sick. Side effects may include liver inflammation and an -related reaction with nausea, , and sweating. It is a that is intentended to allow intracellular delivery of monophosphate and subsequent biotransformation into triphosphate, a ribo inhibitor of viral RNA polymerase. Earlier studies found antiviral activity against several including and , but it is not approved for any indication. Remdesivir was originally developed to treat and was then tested against and , but was ineffective for all of these viral infections. Contents• [ ] Other reported side effects include gastrointestinal distress, elevated levels in the blood liver enzymes , and site reactions. Other possible side effects of remdesivir include:• Increases in levels of liver enzymes, seen in abnormal liver blood tests. Increases in levels of liver enzymes have been seen in people who have received remdesivir, which may be a sign of inflammation or damage to cells in the liver. Research Remdesivir was originally created and developed by in 2009, as part of the company's research and development program for. It did not work against hepatitis C as hoped, but was then repurposed and studied as a potential treatment for and infections. According to the , this new line of research was carried out under the direction of scientist. A collaboration of researchers from the and subsequently discovered that remdesivir had antiviral activity in vitro against multiple , , paramyxoviruses, and. Preclinical and clinical research and development was done in collaboration between Gilead Sciences and various US government agencies and academic institutions. During the mid-2010s, the law firm prosecuted various patent applications for remdesivir on behalf of Gilead Sciences before the USPTO. The USPTO granted two patents on remdesivir to Gilead Sciences on 9 April 2019: one for filoviruses, and one which covered both and coronaviruses. Ebola In October 2015, the USAMRIID announced preclinical results that remdesivir had blocked the in. Travis Warren, who has been a USAMRIID principal investigator since 2007, said that the "work is a result of the continuing collaboration between USAMRIID and Gilead Sciences". The "initial screening" of the "Gilead Sciences compound library to find molecules with promising antiviral activity" was performed by scientists at the CDC. As a result of this work, it was recommended that remdesivir "should be further developed as a potential treatment. " [ ] Remdesivir was rapidly pushed through clinical trials due to the of 2013—2016, eventually being used in people with the disease. Preliminary results were promising; it was used in the emergency setting during the that started in 2018, along with further clinical trials, until August 2019, when Congolese health officials announced that it was significantly less effective than treatments such as and. The trials, however, established its safety profile. COVID-19 See also: , and In January 2020, Gilead Sciences began laboratory testing of remdesivir against SARS-CoV-2, stating that remdesivir had been shown to be active against SARS and MERS in animal models. On 18 March 2020, the WHO announced the launch of a trial that would include one group treated with remdesivir. Other clinical trials are underway or planned. As of April 2020 , remdesivir was viewed as the most promising treatment for , and was included among four treatments under evaluation in the international and European Discovery trial. It completed the review in May 2020. The study appeared on website almost a month later on 22 May 2020 and, despite generally positive results, the study concluded that "given high mortality despite the use of remdesivir, it is clear that treatment with an antiviral drug alone is not likely to be sufficient. " A previous Chinese study published in did not show significant benefits or drawbacks of using remdesivir, concluding that further research is required to understand the effectiveness of the drug. John David Norrie of the Clinical Trials Unit of the criticised that article as underpowered due to a lack of significant results as well as the fact that the study was ended prematurely. Based on the results of its study, the NIH stopped the ACTT trial and provided remdesivir to participants assigned to received placebo. In June 2020, the CHMP of the EMA started evaluating remdesivir for a conditional marketing authorization after receiving an application from Gilead Sciences. On 25 June 2020, the committee recommended granting a conditional marketing authorization for remdesivir for the treatment of COVID-19 in adults and adolescents from 12 years of age with pneumonia who require supplemental oxygen. The brand name will be Veklury. Remdesivir was approved for medical use in the European Union in July 2020. Veterinary uses GS-441524 was shown in 2019, to have promise for treating caused by a. It has not been evaluated or approved by the US FDA for the treatment of or feline infectious peritonitis but has been available since 2019, through websites and social media as an unregulated black market substance as confirmed by the. Because GS-441524 is the main circulating metabolite of remdesivir and because GS-441524 has similar potency against SARS-Cov-2 in vitro, some researchers have argued for the direct administration of GS-441524 as a COVID19 treatment. It was later revealed that Gilead had been providing remdesivir in response to compassionate use requests since 25 January. On 23 March 2020, Gilead voluntarily suspended access for compassionate use excepting cases of critically ill children and pregnant women , for reasons related to supply, citing the need to continue to provide the agent for testing in clinical trials. 93 per day of treatment. Secondary manufacture and distribution On 12 May 2020, Gilead announced that it had granted non-exclusive voluntary licenses to five companies in India and Pakistan to manufacture remdesivir for distribution to 127 countries. The agreements were structured so that the licensees can set their own prices and will not have to pay royalties to Gilead until the WHO declares an end to the COVID-19 emergency or another medicine or vaccine is approved for COVID-19, whichever comes first. On 23 June 2020, India granted emergency marketing approval of generic remdesivir manufactured by two Gilead licensees, and. Australia claims to have a sufficient supply of remdesivir in its national stockpile. Canada As of 11 April 2020, access in Canada was available only through clinical trials. Health Canada approved requests to treat twelve people with remdesivir under the department's special-access program SAP. On 11 May 2020, the CHMP of the EMA recommended expanding the compassionate use of remdesivir to those not on mechanical ventilation. In addition to those undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation, the compassionate use recommendations cover the treatment of hospitalized individuals requiring supplemental oxygen, non-invasive ventilation, high-flow oxygen devices or ECMO extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The updated recommendations were based on preliminary results from the NIAID-ACTT study, which suggested a beneficial effect of remdesivir in the treatment of hospitalized individuals with severe COVID-19. In addition, a treatment duration of five days was introduced alongside the longer ten-day course, based on preliminary results from another study GS-US-540-5773 suggesting that for those not requiring mechanical ventilation or ECMO, the treatment course may be shortened from ten to five days without any loss of efficacy. Individuals who receive a five-day treatment course but do not show clinical improvement will be eligible to continue receiving remdesivir for an additional five days. Japan On 7 May 2020, approved the drug for use in Japan, in a fast-tracked process based on the US emergency authorization. Distribution of remdesivir under the EUA will be controlled by the US government for use consistent with the terms and conditions of the EUA. Gilead will supply remdesivir to authorized distributors, or directly to a US government agency, who will distribute to hospitals and other healthcare facilities as directed by the US government, in collaboration with state and local government authorities, as needed. Gilead stated they were donating 1. 5 million vials for emergency use and estimated, as of April 2020, they had enough remdesivir for 140,000 treatment courses and expect to have 500,000 courses by October 2020, and one million courses by the end of 2020. The initial distribution of the drug in the US was tripped up by seemingly capricious decision-making and finger-pointing, resulting in over a week of confusion and frustration among health care providers and patients alike. On 9 May 2020, the HHS explained in a statement that it would be distributing remdesivir vials to , then would allow each department to redistribute vials to hospitals in their respective states based upon each department's insight into "community-level needs. " HHS also clarified that only 607,000 vials of Gilead's promised donation of 1. 5 million vials would be going to American patients. However, HHS did not explain why several states with some of the highest caseloads had been omitted from the first two distribution rounds, including California, Florida, and Pennsylvania. In May 2020, Gilead indicated they would increase the number of doses donated to the US from 607,000 to around 940,000. Some of the initial distribution was sent to the wrong hospitals, to hospitals with no intensive care units, and to facilities without the needed refrigeration to store it. Absent from these announcements was any discussion of allocation of remdesivir production to the approximately 70 countries omitted from Gilead's generic drug licensing agreements—including much of Europe and countries as populous as Brazil, China, and Mexico—or the 127 countries listed on those agreements during the time it will take for Gilead's generic licensees to ramp up their own production. As the implications of this began to sink in, several countries publicly confirmed the next day that they already had adequate supplies of remdesivir to cover current needs, including Australia, Germany, and the United Kingdom. Pharmacology Activation Activation of remdesivir into its active triphosphate metabolite Remdesivir is a of nucleoTide with similar metabolism as a. It is able to diffuse into cells where it is converted to mono-phosphate via the actions of and and a ; this in turn is further phosphorylated to its triphosphate by. This pathway of bioactivation is meant to occur intracellularly, but a substantial amount of remdesivir is prematurely hydrolyzed in plasma, with GS-441524 being the major metabolite in plasma, and the only metabolite remaining 2 hrs after dosing. Mechanism of action As an nucleoside triphosphate analog GS-443902 , the of remdesivir interferes with the action of viral and evades by viral ExoN , causing a decrease in viral RNA production. In some viruses such as the it causes the RNA-dependent RNA polymerases to pause, but its predominant effect as in Ebola is to induce an irreversible. Unlike with many other chain terminators, this is not mediated by preventing addition of the immediately subsequent nucleotide, but is instead delayed, occurring after five additional bases have been added to the growing RNA chain. For the RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase of MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV-1, and SARS-CoV-2 arrest of RNA synthesis occurs after incorporation of three additional nucleotides. Hence, remdesivir is classified as a direct-acting antiviral agent that works as a delayed chain terminator. Pharmacokinetics In non-human primates, the plasma of the prodrug is 20 minutes, with the main metabolite being the ,. Two hours post injection, the main metabolite GS-441524 is present at micromolar concentrations, whilst intact Remdesivir is no longer detectable. Because of this rapid extracellular conversion to the nucleoside GS-441524, some researchers have questioned whether the active nucleotide triphosphate is truly derived from Remdesivir pro-drug removal or whether it occurs by GS-441524 phosphorylation, and whether direct administration of GS-441524 would constitute a cheaper and easier to administer COVID19 drug compared to Remdesivir. The activated nucleotide triphosphate form has sustained intracellular levels in and presumably in other cells as well. Resistance Mutations in the that cause partial resistance to remdesivir were identified in 2018. These mutations make the viruses less effective in nature, and the researchers believe they will likely not persist where the drug is not being used. Interactions Remdesivir is at least partially metabolized by the enzymes , , and. concentrations of remdesivir are expected to decrease if it is administered together with cytochrome P450 such as , , , , , and. On 15 June 2020, the FDA updated the fact sheets for the emergency use authorization of remdesivir to warn that using chloroquine or with remdesivir may reduce the antiviral activity of remdesivir. Coadministration of remdesivir and chloroquine phosphate or hydroxychloroquine sulfate is not recommended based on in vitro data demonstrating an antagonistic effect of chloroquine on the intracellular metabolic activation and antiviral activity of remdesivir. Synthesis Synthesis of remdesivir in Remdesivir can be synthesized in multiple steps from derivatives. The figure to the right is one of the synthesis routes of remdesivir invented by Chun and coauthors from Gilead Sciences. In this method, intermediate a is firstly prepared from L- and phenyl phosphorodichloridate in presence of and ; triple benzyl-protected ribose is oxidized by with and give the intermediate b; pyrrolo[2,1-f] [1,2,4]triazin-4-amine is brominated, and the amine group is protected by excess. The intermediate b is then added to a solution containing intermediate c dropwise. After quenching the reaction in a weakly acidic aqueous solution, a mixture of 1: 1 was obtained. was added and reacts for one additional hour, and the mixture was quenched in an aqueous sodium hydrogen carbonate. A intermediate was obtained. The excess of boron trichloride was quenched in a mixture of potassium carbonate and methanol. A benzyl-free intermediate was obtained. The isomers were then separated via reversed-phase. The optically pure compound and intermediate a are reacted with trimethyl phosphate and methylimidazole to obtain a mixture of remdesivir. In the end, optically pure remdesivir can be obtained through methods. [ ] Manufacturing and distribution Remdesivir requires "70 raw materials, reagents, and catalysts" to make, and approximately "25 chemical steps. " Some of the ingredients are extremely dangerous to humans, especially trimethylsilyl cyanide. The original end-to-end manufacturing process required 9 to 12 months to go from raw materials at contract manufacturers to finished product, but after restarting production in January, Gilead Sciences was able to find ways to reduce the production time to six months. In January 2020, Gilead began working on restarting remdesivir production in glass-lined steel at its manufacturing plant in. On 2 February 2020, the company flew its entire stock of remdesivir, 100 kilograms in powder form left over from Ebola research , to its filling plant in to start filling vials. The Edmonton plant finished its first new batch of remdesivir in April 2020. Around the same time, fresh raw materials began to arrive from contract manufacturers reactivated by Gilead in January. Terminology Remdesivir is the INN while the development code name was GS-5734. References• EMA. 23 June 2020. Retrieved 6 July 2020. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the. 7 May 2020. Retrieved 25 June 2020 — via Business Wire. April 2020. British Journal of Pharmacology. Wiley on behalf of The British Pharmacological Society. Drugs. com. 20 April 2020. Retrieved 30 April 2020. The American Journal of Emergency Medicine. Elsevier. 38 7 : 1488—1493. The Times of India. Gurgaon, Haryana, India: Times Internet. Reuters. 2 June 2020. Retrieved 2 June 2020. Reuters. Retrieved 10 June 2020. FDA. 1 May 2020. Retrieved 1 May 2020. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the. FDA. 1 May 2020. Retrieved 1 May 2020. The Asahi Shimbun. Retrieved 9 May 2020. Therapeutic Goods Administration TGA Press release. 10 July 2020. Retrieved 11 July 2020. Roberts M 26 May 2020. BBC News Online. Retrieved 26 May 2020. Johns Hopkins ABX Guide. Retrieved 12 April 2020. Remdesivir: Likely the most promising drug. PDF. FDA. Retrieved 8 May 2020. "Advantages of the parent nucleoside GS-441524 over remdesivir for Covid-19 treatment". ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters. A23. Retrieved 11 May 2020. March 2016. Nature. 531 7594 : 381—5. May 2020. Lancet. 395 10236 : 1569—1578. FDA. 1 May 2020. Retrieved 1 May 2020. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the. , , , 5 February 2020. Lo MK, Jordan R, Arvey A, Sudhamsu J, Shrivastava-Ranjan P, Hotard AL, et al. March 2017. Scientific Reports. 7: 43395. Eastman RT, Roth JS, Brimacombe KR, Simeonov A, Shen M, Patnaik S, Hall MD May 2020. ACS Central Science. 6 5 : 672—683. Silverman E 8 May 2020. STAT. Retrieved 28 May 2020. Ardizzone K 20 March 2020. PDF. Knowledge Ecology International. Retrieved 28 May 2020. UAB News. Retrieved 28 May 2020. , Chun BK, Clarke MO, Doerffler E, Hui HC, Jordan R, Mackman RL, Parrish JP, Ray AS, Siegel D, "Methods for treating Filoviridae virus infections", published 1 November 2018, issued 9 April 2019, assigned to Gilead Sciences, Inc. , Clarke MO, Feng JY, Jordan R, Mackman RL, Ray AS, Siegel D, "Methods for treating arenaviridae and coronaviridae virus infections", published 16 March 2017, issued 9 April 2019, assigned to Gilead Sciences, Inc. San Diego, California: USAMRIID. 9 October 2015. PDF from the original on 24 December 2016. Retrieved 15 March 2020. Cao YC, Deng QX, Dai SX April 2020. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease. 35: 101647. de Wit E, Feldmann F, Cronin J, Jordan R, Okumura A, Thomas T, et al. March 2020. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 117 12 : 6771—6776. Sheahan TP, Sims AC, Graham RL, Menachery VD, Gralinski LE, Case JB, et al. June 2017. Science Translational Medicine. 9 396 : eaal3653. Joseph SS, Samuel M 31 January 2020. from the original on 31 January 2020. Retrieved 31 January 2020. Barmann J 6 February 2020. SFist. Impress Media. Archived from on 26 March 2020. Retrieved 22 March 2020. WHO. 3 March 2020. Retrieved 19 April 2020. UN News. 18 March 2020. Retrieved 20 April 2020. ClinicalTrials. gov. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 16 April 2020. ClinicalTrials. gov. 6 February 2020. Retrieved 19 April 2020. ClinicalTrials. gov. 5 February 2020. Retrieved 19 April 2020. ClinicalTrials. gov. 3 March 2020. Retrieved 19 April 2020. ClinicalTrials. gov. 3 March 2020. Retrieved 19 April 2020. ClinicalTrials. gov. 20 March 2020. Retrieved 19 April 2020. ClinicalTrials. gov. 10 March 2020. Retrieved 19 April 2020. ClinicalTrials. gov. 27 March 2020. Retrieved 19 April 2020. European Union Clinical Trials Register. Retrieved 19 April 2020. ClinicalTrials. gov. 21 February 2020. Retrieved 11 May 2020. Kupferschmidt K, Cohen J 22 March 2020. INSERM. 22 March 2020. Retrieved 1 May 2020. EMA. 30 April 2020. Retrieved 4 May 2020. EMA. 11 April 2020. Retrieved 29 May 2020. May 2020. The New England Journal of Medicine. 29 April 2020. Retrieved 29 April 2020. Kolata G 23 May 2020. Retrieved 25 May 2020. Norrie JD May 2020. Lancet. 395 10236 : 1525—1527. Herper M 11 May 2020. Retrieved 12 May 2020. Press release. EMA. 8 June 2020. Retrieved 9 June 2020. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the. EMA. 11 April 2020. Retrieved 9 June 2020. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the. EMA. 25 June 2020. Retrieved 25 June 2020. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the. EMA. 25 June 2020. Retrieved 25 June 2020. PDF. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the. PDF. EMA. Retrieved 25 June 2020. Williamson BN, Feldmann F, Schwarz B, Meade-White K, Porter DP, Schulz J, et al. June 2020. Nature. Pedersen NC, Perron M, Bannasch M, Montgomery E, Murakami E, Liepnieks M, Liu H April 2019. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery. 21 4 : 271—281. Pedersen NC 18 June 2019. PDF. Retrieved 14 April 2020. Westgate J 7 May 2020. vettimes. Naftulin J 20 March 2020. Business Insider. Cerullo M 23 March 2020. CBS News. Retrieved 23 March 2020. 29 June 2020. Retrieved 29 June 2020. Hill A, Wang J, Levi J, Heath K, Fortunak J April 2020. Journal of Virus Eradication. 6 2 : 61—69. Retrieved 12 May 2020. BBC News Online. 14 May 2020. Retrieved 23 May 2020. Rajagopal D 23 June 2020. The Economic Times. Retrieved 1 July 2020. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 11 July 2020. Retrieved 11 July 2020. Hitch G 1 July 2020. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 11 July 2020. Public Health Agency of Canada. 11 April 2020. Retrieved 12 April 2020. Gilead is transitioning the provision of emergency access to remdesivir from individual compassionate use via Health Canada's Special Access Program requests to access through clinical trials. Blackwell, Tom 1 May 2020. National Post. Retrieved 11 July 2020. [Measures of the Ministry of Health of the Czech Republic — LP Remdesivir permit] PDF. www. mzcr. cz in Czech. 17 March 2020. Retrieved 24 March 2020. EMA. Retrieved 7 July 2020. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the. EMA. 3 April 2020. Retrieved 3 May 2020. EMA. 11 May 2020. Retrieved 11 May 2020. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the. PDF. FDA. 1 May 2020. Retrieved 1 May 2020. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the. Reuters. 1 May 2020. Archived from on 2 May 2020. Retrieved 1 May 2020. Holland S, Beasley D 4 May 2020. Reuters. Retrieved 8 May 2020. Jarvis LM 20 April 2020. Chemical and Engineering News. Rowland C 10 April 2020. Retrieved 8 May 2020. Kolata G 8 May 2020. Retrieved 8 May 2020. Swan J 8 May 2020. Axios. Retrieved 11 May 2020. Retrieved 29 May 2020. Boston Globe Media. Retrieved 11 May 2020. Branswell H 19 May 2020. Retrieved 19 May 2020. Kolata G 29 June 2020. Retrieved 29 June 2020. Press release. Department of Health and Human Services HHS. 29 June 2020. Retrieved 29 June 2020. Boseley S 30 June 2020. Baragona S 29 June 2020. Voice of America. Agency for Global Media. Retrieved 30 June 2020. Davey M 1 July 2020. Retrieved 1 July 2020. Rinke A 1 July 2020. Reuters. Retrieved 1 July 2020. Stout A, Mason J 1 July 2020. Reuters. ACS Central Science. 6 5 : 672—683. Sheahan TP, Sims AC, Graham RL, Menachery VD, Gralinski LE, Case JB, et al. June 2017. Science Translational Medicine. 9 396 : eaal3653. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 295 20 : 6785—6797. Yan VC, Muller FL 14 May 2020. Statnews. Cho A, Saunders OL, Butler T, Zhang L, Xu J, Vela JE, Feng JY, Ray AS, Kim CU April 2012. 22 8 : 2705—7. Ferner RE, Aronson JK April 2020. BMJ. 369: m1610. Viruses. 11 4 : 326. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 295 15 : 4773—4779. Yan VC, Muller FL 14 May 2020. Statnews. Chiotos K, Hayes M, Kimberlin DW, Jones SB, James SH, Pinninti SG, et al. April 2020. Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society: piaa045. PDF. EMA. 3 April 2020. Retrieved 1 May 2020. FDA. 15 June 2020. Retrieved 15 June 2020. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the. Retrieved 28 April 2020. Press release. FDA. 15 June 2020. Retrieved 15 June 2020. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the. , Chun BK, Clarke MO, Doerffler E, Hui HC, Jordan R, Mackman RL, Parrish JP, Ray AS, Siegel D, "Methods for treating Filoviridae virus infections", published 5 May 2016, issued 8 August 2017, assigned to Gilead Sciences Inc. , Clarke MO, Jordan R, Mackman RL, Ray AS, Siegel D, "Preparation of amino acid-containing nucleosides for treating flaviviridae virus infections", published 26 October 2017, assigned to Glead Sciences Inc• Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved 14 May 2020. World Health Organization 2017. "International nonproprietary names for pharmaceutical substances INN : recommended INN: list 78". WHO Drug Information. 31 3 : 549. 27 February 2020. Retrieved 17 April 2020. Further reading• Kolata G 1 May 2020. from the original on 19 June 2020. External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to. has a profile for. Drug Information Portal. National Library of Medicine. Classification.

次の